Seabirds

Seabirds are a common site for our fishermen, they accompany our boats when they’re out fishing and they pick fish from our nets as it’s easier to let us do the hard work for them. A seabird is a sign of a healthy ocean – fact!

Explore the various seabirds native to our fishing grounds in Peterhead, Scotland.

Arctic Tern

Sterna paradisaea (Arctic tern)

With long tail streamers the Arctic tern is often called the ‘sea swallow’. Appearing white with a black cap they are largely coastal although can be seen inland on migration. Like all seabirds, they depend on a healthy marine environment and some colonies have been affected by fish shortages. Arctic terns are the ultimate long-distance migrants – they are summer visitors to the UK and winter visitors to the Antarctic.

Breeding

Generally, along the coastline in open areas with sand or shingle, or on moorland/coastal heath. They are extremely vulnerable to predation, especially by ground predators, and in some areas are forced to nest on small islands which are free from mammals such as rats and mink.

Migration

They start to arrive back from their Antarctic winter break in May, with northernmost birds getting back in June. Many birds occur inland during their migration north, passing through central England in late April/early May. Migration south commences after breeding in late July and August.

 

Tern facts

Eggs                                       1-3

Incubation                              20-24 days

Fledging                                 21-24 days

Maximum lifespan                 29 years

Length                                    33-35cm

Wingspan                               75-85cm

Weight                                    95-120g

Arctic Tern Scotland
Razorbill

The razorbill is a medium-sized seabird: black above and white below. They have a thick black beak which is deep and blunt, unlike the thinner bill of the similar guillemot.

Like all seabirds, the future of this species is linked to the health of the marine environment. Fishing nets, pollution and declining fish stocks all threaten the razorbill.

Breeding

On rocky cliffs and among boulder scree close to the sea. The egg is cone-shaped, though slightly less so than the guillemot, helping to prevent it rolling off the cliff. They only come to shore to breed.

Migration

From March to end of July on the Isle of May, Bass Rock, Craigleith and Fidra. Rather scarce in inshore waters the rest of the time.

 

Razorbill facts

Eggs                                     1

Incubation                            33-36 days

Fledging                               18 days

Maximum lifespan                28 years

Length                                  37-39cm

Wingspan                             63-67cm

Weight                                  590-730g

Razorbill Scotland
Herring gull

Larus argentatus

Herring gulls are large, noisy gulls found throughout the year around our coasts and inland around rubbish tips, fields, large reservoirs and lakes, especially during winter.

Adults have light grey backs, white under parts and black wing tips with white ‘mirrors’. Their legs are pink, with webbed feet and they have heavy, slightly hooked bills marked with a red spot. Young birds are mottled brown.

They have suffered moderate declines over the past 25 years and over half of their UK breeding population is confined to fewer than 10 sites.

Breeding

Often in colonies, on coastal sites around the UK, including cliffs with grassy slopes, shingle beaches, small islands and rooftops in seaside towns: also on moors.

Migration

Primarily in coastal areas but generally more widespread in winter, ranging inland to feed on rubbish tips and roost on large lochs.

 

Herring gull facts

Eggs                                     2-4

Incubation                            28-30 days

Fledging                               35-40 days

Maximum lifespan               31 years

Length                                  53-59cm

Wingspan                             138-150cm

Weight                                 690-1,495g

Seagull Scotland
Fulmar

Fulmaris glacialis

The fulmar is an ocean-going member of the petrel family with its typical tube-like nostrils distinguished from gulls by its stiff-winged, gliding flight. They have medium pale grey wings with white beneath. To protect itself the adult and chick can spit out their stomach contents, an oily foul-smelling liquid.

Breeding

Only 1 egg is laid, usually on grassy ledges near the top of cliffs, and the chick fledges in September.

Migration

They are off-shore throughout the year.

 

Fulmar facts

Eggs                                     1

Incubation                            52-53 days

Fledging                               46-51 days

Maximum lifespan               50 years

Length                                  48cm

Wingspan                             107cm

Weight                                  880g

Fulmar Scotland
Eider

Somateria mollissima

The UK’s heaviest, and also fastest flying, duck. A true sea duck, rarely found away from coasts, eiders are highly gregarious and usually stay close inshore, riding the swell in a sandy bay or strung out in long lines out beyond the breaking waves. It is an Amber List species because of its winter concentrations.

Breeding

Along rocky coasts with suitable islands and reefs with protective rocks and vegetation. Many eiders nest in gull and tern colonies, where they derive some protection as their more aggressive neighbours chase away predators.

Migration

Sheltered rocky coasts and estuaries.

 

Eider facts

Eggs                                    4-6

Incubation                           25-28 days

Fledging                              65-75 days

Maximum lifespan              31 years

Length                                 50-71cm

Wingspan                            80-108cm

Weight                                 1,500-2,800g

Eider Scotland
Guillemot

Uria aalge

The UK’s coasts have many stretches of sheer cliffs where seabirds breed, and the guillemot is one of the most prevalent birds in the great ‘seabird cities’. They land only to nest, spending the rest of the time life at sea: unfortunately, this means they can be vulnerable to oil spills.

Dark brown and white, not as black as the similar razorbill, it has a ‘bridled’ form with a white ring round the eye and stripe behind it.

Breeding

On narrow, horizontal or sloping ledges on sheer cliffs and on top of offshore rock stacks. The egg is cone-shaped helping to prevent it rolling off the cliff.

Migration

Out at sea.

 

Guillemot facts

Eggs                                 1

Incubation                        28-34 days

Fledging (leave ledge)     2-3 weeks

Fledging (flight)              6-7 weeks

Maximum lifespan          10 years

Length                             38-45cm

Wingspan                        64-67cm

Weight                             850-1,130g

Guillemot scotland
Shag

Phalacrocorax aristotelis

Shags are goose-sized, dark, long-necked birds similar to cormorants but smaller and generally slimmer with a characteristic steep forehead. In the breeding season adults develop a dark glossy green plumage and prominent crest on the front of their head.

Breeding

In the UK they breed on coastal sites, mainly in the north and west. Over half their population is found at fewer than 10 sites, making them an Amber List species. Shags usually stay within 100-200km of their breeding grounds.

Migration

Nests are in coastal colonies on ledges and sea cliffs, or among large boulders.

 

Shag facts

Eggs                                    3

Incubation                           30 days

Fledging                              53 days

Maximum lifespan              15 years

Length                                 72-79cm

Wingspan                            95-110cm

Weight                                 1,760-2,154g

Shag bird Scotland
Gannet

Morus bassanus (Northern gannet)

Scotland is home to around 60% of Europe’s gannets. From February gannets return to the Bass Rock: numbers peak at over 150,000 making it the world’s largest colony of Northern gannets. It is also BBC Countryfile Magazine’s Nature Reserve of the Year 2014/15 and 2015/16.

Gannets are Britain’s largest seabird and they have a distinctive appearance: adults are bright white with black wingtips and a yellow marking on their heads, a long neck, pointed beak and long pointed tail.

At sea they flap and then glide low over the water, often travelling in small groups. They feed by flying high and circling before plunging into the sea, at speeds of up to 60mph/ 96kmph.

Breeding

They breed in significant numbers but only at a few localities: coastal cliffs and remote islands with cliffs, ledges and slopes.

Migration

Spent at sea, with many flying as far as Bay of Biscay and the West Coast of Africa.

 

Gannet facts

Eggs                                     1

Incubation                            42-46 days

Fledging                               84-97 days

Maximum lifespan              Up to 35 years

Length                                  87-100cm

Wingspan                             165-180cm

Weight                                 2,400-3,600g

Gannets Scotland
Kittiwake

Rissa tridactyla (kittiwake or black-legged kittiwake)

A gentle looking, medium-sized gull, kittiwakes have a small yellow bill, dark eye, grey back and white underneath: their little legs are short and black. In flight, the black wing-tips show no white, unlike other gulls, and look as if they have been ‘dipped in ink’.

Breeding

On rocky, steep sea-cliffs, buildings and piers.

Migration

Spent out in the open Atlantic.

 

Kittiwake facts

Eggs                                     2-3

Incubation                            25-32 days

Fledging                               33-54 days

Maximum lifespan               28 years

Length                                  38-40cm

Kittiwake Marrfish
Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo

A large and conspicuous water bird, the cormorant has an almost primitive appearance with a long neck making it appear almost reptilian. They are often seen standing with wings held out.

Regarded by some as black, sinister and greedy, cormorants are supreme fishers which can bring them into conflict with anglers. The UK holds internationally important wintering numbers and with their breeding concentrations at a few sites it is an Amber List species.

Migration

As coastal seabirds they are found wherever there are cliffs or rocky islands. New colonies inland are mainly in trees by freshwater lochs, gravel pits and reservoirs.

 

Cormorant facts

Eggs                                     3-4 eggs

Incubation                            28-31 days

Fledging                               48-52 days

Maximum lifespan               23 years

Length                                  90cm

Wingspan                             145cm

Weight                                  2.5kg

Cormorant Marrfish
Puffin

Fratercula arctica (Atlantic puffin)

Often called the ‘clown of the sea’ the puffin is an unmistakable seabird with a black back and white underparts, distinctive black head with large pale cheeks and brightly-coloured bill. Their comical appearance is heightened by red and black eye markings and bright orange legs.

Breeding

They prefer islands where they mostly nest in burrows which they usually excavate themselves but they may also nest under rocks and scree or in cracks on cliffs: these are called puffinries. They lay one egg and their young are called pufflings. After hatching the young puffin remains underground concealed in the nest, until the night comes for it to head for the open sea, not to return until it is ready to breed, usually some 5 years later.

Migration

Spent at sea, some fly as far as the Bay of Biscay.

 

Puffin facts

Eggs                                    1

Incubation                           36-45 days

Fledging                              34-60 days

Maximum lifespan              29 years

Length                                 26-29cm

Wingspan                            47-63cm

Weight                                 320-480g

Puffin Scotland